Making aviation CO2-neutral by 2050 is a monumental challenge. How can public funding and regulatory measures positively change the European aviation ecosystem? Besides intensifying R&D support, an accelerated fleet renewal can substantially boost efficiency. A quick market ramp-up of sustainable fuels also offers significant potential to quickly reduce life-cycle emissions. Finally, in light of rising CO2 costs, emission reductions become ever more important to dampen an increase in ticket prices. More than ever, industry and policy- making need to find a common view on aviation support and regulation.