Making aviation climate-neutral in the long term requires considerable innovations, as does the implementation of the digital transformation. Early detection of key research advances supporting the shift to renewable energies and efficiency improvements as well as future-proof assessment of technical potentials in the aviation context are essential to set the right course in good time. A deeper understanding of emerging technology options and their prospects, for example for increasing the efficiency of the hydrogen chain, of direct air capture-based scalable synthetic fuel production, or of fast data processing, provides the basis for developing sustainable strategies for the energy and digital transformation.