The use of green hydrogen to achieve the Paris Climate Agreement also represents a promising fuel option in aviation. With the involvement of experts from Airbus, Munich Airport, and Bauhaus Luftfahrt, students of the Technical University of Munich have developed future paths and prerequisites for the implementation of hydrogen for the aviation sector. The plausible and consistent analysis and combination of various factors resulted in three scenarios for the time horizon 2035+. These differ in particular with regard to technological developments, political incentives and subsidies, synergy effects with other industries, or the availability of green hydrogen.

The market penetration of hydrogen aircraft is significantly influenced by the readiness of hydrogen technologies, the necessary investment for the provision and adaptation of infrastructure, and the integration into airline operations, and ranges from global implementation to niche applications in specific regions. In addition to introducing hydrogen to the short- and medium-haul market, as discussed in the scenarios, Bauhaus Luftfahrt sees promising potential for the long-haul segment 1 .

From these findings, implications can be derived for various stakeholders. Airports, for example, are faced with major challenges due to the required infrastructure for storage and distribution, the establishment of safety standards for handling hydrogen, and ensuring the parallel operation of conventional and hydrogen-powered aircraft.

Potential future scenarios for the introduction of hydrogen

The range of applications can differ widely across the depicted scenarios, from global cooperation to an implementation in specific regional markets.

Relevant influencing factors for the introduction of hydrogen in aviation

Potential factors influencing the introduction of green hydrogen, sorted by their importance for implementation and uncertainty regarding future development.

Three different future scenarios show potential implications in regard to the introduction of hydrogen.