Hydrogen can be produced in large quantities from solar and wind energy. As a chemical energy carrier, hydrogen is transportable and storable, therefore it is frequently seen as a central vector for the energy transition. Hydrogen can be transformed into synthetic kerosene using CO2. In liquefied form, it may also be directly used as an aviation fuel. Another option is the coupling of renewable hydrogen with advanced biofuel conversion pathways, which can significantly increase the fuel yield. The answer to several research questions is still pending, especially in the complex field of biomass conversion.