A key overarching question is: Along which path will technology evolve towards climate-neutral aviation? The magnitude of the challenge creates a strong “technology pull” for efficiency gains and the transition to 100 % renewable energy. As a consequence, cutting-edge electro-chemical technologies evolve into the aviation system, potentially enabling a step-change reduction in climate impact. Simultaneously, more intelligent, adaptive, connected solutions along the entire life cycle will evolve with the increasing complexity of the system. This change will, among others, be guided by decision-making based on standardised climate impact metrics as the common “currency” for putting first things first.